But the main draw­back of rules and procedures is that they can be useful only where interdependent activities are pre­dictable and it is easy to secure individual and group response. Clearly defined goals – The goals of the organisation should be laid down clearly. Seymour Tiles while stating the functions of a manager asked “What does a manager do”? At the top level, the chief executives will co-ordinate the activities of functional or departmental managers. The role of a committee is significant in achieving horizontal coordination, that is, coordination of efforts of functional, divisional, or territorial units. This, of course, requires effective communication across the departments. This particular department may not be having control over the other departments. Each specialist and department, supplies some of the resources required to help the patient. Co-ordination is the unification, integration, synchronization of the efforts of group members so as to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals. 1. Cooperation 7. Precise and Comprehensive Programmes and Policies, 6. Comprehensive programmes and policies are used for solving routine and repetitive problems faced by different departments. This is achieved by forming cross-functional teams and self-managed teams. Clear Lines of Authority and Responsibility: There is a line of authority in every enterprise which indicates as to who is accountable to whom. For Example – Five persons engaged in pushing a car out of the mud have a strong desire to co-operate with one another. They move closer to each other. FEATURES OF COORDINATION Essence of management. Effective communication helps a lot for achieving coordination. For example, top level managers coordinate the activities of their subordinates to ensure that the overall policies of an organisation are duly implemented. We present a review of recent literature on coordination in organizations arranged according to the mechanisms that help achieve it. It is established by delegation of authority, … The factors which affect co­ordination are as follows: At present the more complex organisations structure of any institution involving more sub-ordinates brings about added problems of communication. Uploader Agreement. GAVI’S APPROACH. Cooperation can be brought about by keeping harmonious relations among the people in the organisation by encouraging informal contacts to supplement formal communication and using committees for exchange of ideas and views at the top level. The definition of accountability with examples. Good co-ordination gives job satisfaction to the employees which keeps their morale high. Report a Violation 11. If the operations of an organization are diversified and complex, then the need for coordination is felt every­where. Cooperation can be brought about by keeping harmonious relations among the people in the organization by encouraging informal contacts to supplement formal communication and using committees for exchange of ideas and views at the top level. Communication without distortions, gaps etc. Committee ensures that problems which arise out of relationships among various units can be solved by group decisions. However, coordination problems may arise because it is almost impossible to create a mechanically perfect system of clear-cut jurisdictions. (i) Coordination Integrates Group Effort: The need for coordination is felt when group effort is needed for the accomplishment of an objective. Direct contacts also help wither away the contro­versies and misunderstandings. Follet contends that this sort of reciprocal relation and this sort of interpenetration of every part by every other part, and again by every other part, as it has been? Management seeks to achieve co-ordination through its basic functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. Lack of coordination on anticipated increase in demand will result in expedited production and shipping. (iii) Superior may solicit views and cooperation of staff members in the solution of problems. 5. The individuals in the organ­ization must be willing to help each other voluntarily. In order to obtain co-ordination while organising, the manager must look at it, both vertically and horizontally. Liaison – A PRO or Liaison officer will co-ordinate and activate the functions of various departments and facilitate control of activities. For example, when a sales manager is making a plan to increase his sales target, he also consults the production manager, the purchase manager, the finance manager, etc. • Stage two .Aid coordination can be considered a second stage, where donor coordination efforts are increasingly matched by a more proactive engagement of government counterparts and by the setting up of the foundations of improved aid forecasting, accounting and aid management systems on the government side. Group Meetings – The managers and other officials meet to discuss common problems of organisation and the top management will provide solutions for smooth working. Coordination should start from the very beginning of planning process. Well-defined programmes and policies are essential for achieving effective coordination. Precise and Comprehensive Programmes and Policies: Laying down well- defined programmes and policies is another measure for achieving effective coordination. In order to ensure that the policy decisions, programs etc. Establishment of an effective communication system is the key to proper coor­dination. It is a hidden force which binds all the other functions of management. But they may not be successful in their attempt unless one of them is able to co-ordinate the efforts of all of them. The lines of authority and responsibility of each individual member of the organization must also be spelt out clearly. Authors of management are of this opinion that the total accomplishment of ten employees of a department whose efforts are properly co-ordinated will be for greater than the mathematical sum of their individual accomplishment. Besides co-ordination of activities which serves as a-general control measure, “Budgetary control” devices including budgets such as production budget, cash budget, capital budget, sales budget etc., play a major role in controlling the plan activities. Louis A. Allen has also regarded co-ordination as one of the separate managerial functions. Co-ordination is something more than co-operation or voluntary efforts of individuals; it is a deliberate effort by the management. He can define the authority of his subordinates, their functions, and timing of performance of these functions. On the other hand, supervisors also play an important role in coordination. every management function should lead to coordination. Coordination is a continuous process. This can be achieved through coordination, which means integrating all activities in an enterprise. Coordination between various departments of an enterprise; iv. In case it does not do so, it will have to wait to produce to meet the increased demand. As the third principle, Mary Follet states, that all factors in a situation are reciprocally related. Well defined plans and goals help to achieve coordination by ensuring that efforts of all individuals and departments are directed towards organisational goals. For instance, coordination between various functional managers such as production manager, marketing manager, finance manager, etc., can be termed as horizontal coordination. It is a part of the managerial functions of planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. Accordingly, any one or more persons may be assigned the duty of resolving issues between any two or more interde­pendent departments. The problems and nature of human beings are so complicated that they always present problems of co-ordination. For example, coordination is necessary between the sales manager, the works manager, the finance manager and the buyer, so that when the sales department is ready to sell the new product, the production department will be in a position to fill the orders, and the financial arrangements have been made so that the necessary funds are available to have the suitable raw materials, etc. Cited By Recommended Computerizing ICBF Method for Schedule Delay Analysis. (iii) Coordination is a Continuous Process: It is not a job which can be performed once and for all, but its need is felt at every step. Recommended. 4. The manager can also clearly define the work of his subordinates, their role, function, and timing of performing the work, in order to achieve co-ordination. Content Guidelines Following are some specific techniques that can be used by managers for ensuring co-ordination: i. Co-Ordination by Meetings and Conferences: Periodic meetings of staff of various levels of management is an effective technique of co-ordination. Cooperation refers to voluntary actions of members to work collectively as a group. Therefore, there is unity of action among the employees, groups, and departments. Leadership is the process of influencing and supporting others to work willingly and enthusiastically to achieve desired results. Common examples of quality requirements. Through co-ordination duplication of work and work at cross purposes can be eliminated. Sometimes, individuals fail to understand how the achievement of organizational goals will satisfy their own goals.

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